Osteoporosis || Causes, Risk Factor, Management

Osteoporosis

 Definition of Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become weak and brittle, due to low bone mass and bone tissue loss. Osteoporosis affects the structure and strength of bone and makes fractures more, especially in the spine, hip, and wrists. More resorption (removal of calcium) and less deposition of calcium is responsible for osteoporosis, thus Osteoporosis is demineralization of Bone. Osteoporosis means pores in Bone. The condition is often referred to as a”silent disease” because you can’t feel your bones getting weaker, and many people don’t even know they have the condition until after they break a bone.

Sign and symptoms-

Fracture is the Most Common First Symptom. There are no symptoms and a person may not know until he experience a fracture after a minor accident such as a fall or even a cough and sneeze.breaks in the spine can lead to changes in posture.

The Skeletal System Parts and Functions

Osteoporosis of Causes & Risk factor 

  1. Age-risk increase after 30 years.
  2. Postmenopausal women especially in early menopause.
  3. More in females than male.
  4. Cigarette smoking.
  5. Heavy caffeine intake.
  6. Sedentary lifestyle.
  7. Insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet.
  8. Long term use of heparin and steroids.
  9. low testosterone in men.
  10. Other hormone imbalances- parathyroid hormone and growth hormone play a role in regulating our bone density.
  11. The condition that increases the risk that are-(Cancer, COPD, Chronic kidney diseases and some Autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing.) spondylitis.
  12. Some medication that increases the risk is-
  •  Glucocorticoids and corticosteroids including prednisone and prednisolone
  •  Protein pump inhibitors and other antacids that adversely affect minerals status.
  •  Some antidepressant medications.
  • Thiazide diuretics.
  •  Some immuno-suppressant agents such as cyclosporine.

Clinical Manifestation of Osteoporosis –

  •  Low Back pain and pain radiating around the trunk.
  • Loss of height due to vertebral compression.
  • Pathological fracture (neck, hip, femur, and long bones.)

Diagnosis Of Osteoporosis –

  1.  X-ray show porous bone. 
  2. Physical examination. 
  3. Check serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline level.
  4.  C.A.T and M.R.I for bone density.
  5. Check parathyroid hormone level.
  6. Bone biopsy.

Management and treatment-

Endocrine Quiz

(Treatment can help in this situation but cannot be cured completely.)

  • Provide calcium and vitamin D rich diet. (calcium is essential for bone and vitamin D plays a key role, as it helps the body absorb calcium) Ex- milk and dairy product, some green leafy product, almonds, and seeds.
  • Encourage pt. for use of safety measures like a walker, side railing.
  • Administer calcitonin to prevent bone resorption.
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Ex. estrogen – estrogen reduce resorption rate of calcium and phosphorus.
  • Encourage pt. for exercise and physical activity according to a physiotherapist.
  • Provide support of the spine with a brace as prescribed.
  • Encourage adequate fluid intake.
  • Encourage pt. for the avoidance of alcohol, cigarette smoking, and heavy caffeine intake.
  • Provide pain killer as prescribed to reduce pain.
  • Prevent fracture.

Complications of Osteoporosis –

Osteoporotic bones are very weak, so fractures are more frequent, and with increasing age, it takes a long time to repair broken bones. It may be difficult to recover a broken hip bone, and the person cannot be able to live independently, so it is important to take action to prevent people with osteoporosis from falling.

Nursing Test For AIIMS