THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
The Skeletal System is the bony framework of the body. it forms cavities and fossa e that protect some structures, forms the joints and given attachment to muscles. The skeleton is described in two parts axial and appendicular. The appendicular skeleton attached to the axial Skeleton. skeletal system anatomy notes pdf. This is “human body bone names”. The axial skeleton consist of the skull, vertebral column, sternum and the ribs. axial skeleton protect major vital organs and in the axial skeleton having total 80 bones.
The skull described in two parts, the cranium which contains the brain, and the face. it consists of a number of bones, develop separately but fuse together as they mature. in the skull bones only one movable bone is the mandible or lower jaw. The Names of the skull bones (human body bone names) are :
The cranium ijs formed by a number of flat and irregular bones that provide a bony protection for the brain. It has a base upon which the brain rests and a vault that surrounds and covers it. The peritoneum lining the inner surface of the skull bones forms the outer layer of dura mater. In the mature skull the joints between the bones are immovable. The bones of the cranium are –
- Frontal Bone – 1
- Parietal Bone – 2
- Temporal Bone – 2
- Occipital Bone – 1
- Sphenoid Bone – 1
- Ethmoid Bone – 1
- Zygomatic Bone (cheek bone) – 2
- Maxilla Bone – 1
- Nasal Bone – 2
- Lacrimal Bone – 2
- Vomer Bone – 1
- Palatine Bone – 2
- Inferior conchae – 2
- Mendible Bone – 1
Some Other Bones –
- Hyoid bone (1) – It does not articulate with any other bone but is attached to the steloid process of temporal bone by ligaments.
- Auditory Ossicles – Malleus bone (2), Incus bone (2), Stapes bone (2). Stapes is the smallest bone in the human body.
Functions of the Skull / Skeletal System functions
- protection of delicate structures including the brain, eyes and inner ears
- maintaining patency of the nasal passages enabling breathing
- eating – the teeth are embedded in the mandible and maxilla; and movement of the mandible, the only movable skull bone, allows chewing. This is the brief knowledge of functions of the skull in pdf.
- Cervical – 7
- Thoracic – 12
- Lumbar – 5
- Sacrum – 1 (5 fused bones)
- Coccyx – 1 (4 fused bones)
Functions of The Vertebral Column / Skeletal System functions
- It protects the spinal cord.In each vertebra is a hole, the vertebral foramen, and collectively the foramina form a canal in which the spinal cord lies.
- Adjacent vertebrae form openings , which protects the spinal nerves as they pass from the spinal cord
- In the thoracic region the ribs articulate with the verterae forming joints allowing movement of the ribcage during respiration.
- Sternum or breast bone – 1
- Ribs – 12 pairs
- Thoracic vertebrae – 12
Functions of the thoracic cage
- It protects the thoracic organs including the heart, lungs and large blood vessels.
- It forms joints between the upper limbs and the axial skeleton. The upper part of the sternum, the only joints between the upper limbs and the axial skeleton.
- It gives attachment to the muscles of respiration.
The appendicular skeleton consists of the shoulder girdles and upper limbs, and the pelvic girdle and lower limbs. human body bone names pdf.
The shoulder girdles and upper limbs.
- Humerus – 1
- Radius – 1
- Ulna – 1
- Carpal Bones – 8
- Metacarpal bones – 5
- Phalanges – 14
The pelvic girdle and lower limbs.
The bones of the pelvic girdle are the two innominate bones and the sacrum. Each lower limb consits of –
- Femur – 1
- Tibia – 1
- Fibula -1
- Patella -1
- Tarsal bones – 7
- Meta tarsal bones -5
- Phalanges -14
Functions of the Appendicular skeleton / Skeletal System functions
- Voluntary movement – The bones, muscles and joints of the limbs are involved in movement of the skeleton. This ranges from very fine finger movements needed for writing to the coordinated movement of all the limbs associated with running and jumping.
- Protection of delicate structures – Blood vessels and nerves lie along the length of bones of the limbs and are protected from injury by the associated muscles and skin. These structures are most vulnerable where they cross joints and where bones can be felt immediately below the skin.