Cell & Tissue




Tissue is divided/Classify in four groups according its structure and function. The tissue is a cluster of cells, these cells are work similarly, and its nature and structure are same. The tissue is structure between cell and organ. All types of body tissue developed by three primary germ layers (Ectoderm, Mesoderm And Endoderm).

1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Nervous tissue


 1. Epithelial Tissue –

Epithelial tissue or epithelium arranged as a continuous sheet. Less space between two cells, this tissue is avascular tissue, but nerve supply is present in the epithelial tissue and its divided into two types.
(A) Covering & Lining Epithelial Tissue
(B) Glandular Epithelial Tissue

(A) Covering & Lining Epithelial Tissue

This type of tissue covering of skin & body cavities also lining the ducts. it again divided into two types –
I. Simple Epithelium
II. Stratified Epithelium (Multiple Layers)

I. Simple Epithelium –

It made up single layer cells, type of simple epithelium Based on shape of cells.
(a) Squamous Epithelium or pavement epithelium – Function – Filtration, Diffusion, Osmosis.
(b) Cuboidal epithelium – Function – Secretion, Absorption, Excretion.
(c) Simple Columnar epithelium – Function – Secretion, Absorption.
(d) Ciliated Columnar – Function – Give movement to mucus & other substance by ciliary action.

II. Stratified Epithelium (Multiple Layers)-

This layer is protect underlying structure for wearing and tearing.
(a) Stratified Squamous Epithelium – There are two types of stratified squamous epithelium.
⇒ Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Lining dry surface of body like – Skin, Hair, Nail.
⇒ Non Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Lining wet surface of body like – Mouth, Anal canal, Vagina, Conjunctiva of eyes.
(b) Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium. Lining on Part of male urethra Ducts of sweet gland.
(c) Stratified Columnar Epithelium. Some line part of urethra, Small area in anal mucus membrane.
(d) Transitional Epithelium. Line in urinary bladder, ureter & Part of urethra.

(B) Glandular Epithelial Tissue –

This type of tissue produce secretion, situated in glands made by goblet cells these cells specialize to produce chemicals. glandular epithelial tissue is multi functional epithelial tissue.

2. Connective Tissue – 

This type of tissue is the largest amount in body. Function – Provide Support Strength and connect other tissue, Protect & insulate internal organ, Transportation, storage, main siteof immune reaction.
It consist of two basic elements
I. Cell  II. Matrix

I. Cell –

few connective tissue cell are

  •  Fibroblast cells
  •  Adipose cells or Fat cell or Adipocytes
  •  Mast cells
  •  Macrophages
  •  Plasma cells
  •  WBC

II. Matrix – 

Space Between the cells filed by matrix, matrix made by fibrous and ground substance (The material between cells and fiber called ground substance Ex. H2O, Hyaluronic acids.
Fibers – There are three type of fiber found in matrix

  •  Collagen fibers
  • Elastic fibers
  • Reticular Fibers

 Classification of connective tissue

(a) Loose Connective tissue

  Areolar Connective tissue
 Adipose connective tissue
 Reticular connective tissue

(b) Dense connective tissue

 The dense Regular connective tissue
 Dense irregular connective tissue
 Elastic connective tissue
(c) Cartilage connective tissue
Hyaline cartilage connective tissue 
➤ Fibro cartilage connective tissue
➤ Elastic cartilage connective tissue
(d) Bone
(e) Blood
(f) Lymph

3. Muscle Tissue –

Muscle tissue made up by elongated cells called muscle fiber. In this tissue heaving contraction & relaxation property then muscle tissue provides body movement.
Types of muscle tissue – Based on location, structure & function it classified into three categories –
(a) Skeleton muscle tissue
(b) Smooth muscles
(c) Cardiac muscles tissue