Cesarean section, types, complications & Management

Cesarean Section LSCS

Cesarean section is a surgical procedure in which a baby is born through an incision in the abdomen and uterus. This procedure is also known as C-section/Caesarean delivery.
Cesarean section is done because vaginal delivery is not safe for mother and baby in many situations. Such as breech birth, placenta previa, and high blood pressure.
The cesarean section usually takes 45 minutes to 1 hour. and is usually performed with spinal anesthesia and also with general anesthesia.

Types of Cesarean Section / C Section Surgery Complications & Management

Types of Cesarean Section / C Section Surgery –

C section is classified according to the incision technique

  • classical cesarean section
  • Lower section Caesarean section LSCS.

According to the urgency

  • emergency c-section
  • elective cesarean section

Classical cesarean section

In a classical cesarean delivery, a vertical incision is made in the midline of the abdomen. Once the abdomen is incised, the uterus is also incised vertically and the baby is delivered.
The classical C Section is not commonly used now, because it required a large amount of space for delivery. The classical incision increases the risk of hernia. because long incisions can weaken the abdominal muscles.

Causes of classical Cesarean Section or indication for Classical Cesarean

  • Preterm labor
  • Dense adhesion
  • Placenta previa
  • Placenta accreta

To decrease the risk of hemorrhage and adhesion
Preterm labor – In preterm labor lower uterine segment is not developed to provide adequate space for fetal delivery.
Fetal malformations like – macrocrania sacrococcygeal teratoma and conjoined twins.
Transverse lie and breach.

The procedure of classical cesarean

A midline vertical incision is chosen for laparotomy, classical incision provides a quick and short interval between incision and delivery.
There is less blood loss in this incision, which provides more space for the procedure.

The disadvantage of the classical section

  • Poor/bed cosmetic results.
  • Incisional hernia.
  • More postoperative pain.

Lover Segmental Cesarean Section/bikini cut –

Introduction – this procedure is the most commonly used type of C section, a transverse incision is made in the lower uterine segment. for delivery of the baby. in this type of incision feeling of incision is more efficient than in others. And it has less blood loss.

Emergency C section

An emergency C section is required in some conditions such as-

  • Previous cesarean delivery
  • Placenta previa
  • Placenta accrete
  • Fetal distress
  • Antepartum eclampsia
  • Multiple fetuses

Elective C section

Some surgery is scheduled in advance, so it does not involve a medical emergency. some women do not want normal vaginal delivery of the baby.

Causes of cesarean section indication

  • Delayed labor if the cervix is not open enough after several hours of a strong contraction. then Cesarean Section is necessary.
  • Fetal distress baby heartbeats decreases then C Section is necessary.
  • Abnormal positions – transverse lie, breach lie, shoulder presentation.
  • Multiple fetuses- twins, triple and more babies.
  • Placenta previa
  • placenta acreta
  • Cord loop around baby’s neck and cord prolapse
  • Women who have heart and brain problems
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Previous cesarean delivery.

Complications of cesarean section

  • Infection in the lining of the uterus
  • Postpartum hemorrhage
  • Blood clots
  • Surgical injuries urinary bladder Rapture and bowl rupture
  • Wound infection
  • Reaction of anesthesia
  • DVT deep vein thrombosis

Management after the C section

  • Watch for vital science
  • Watch for bleeding
  • Provides painkiller for more managed pain
  • Provide proper rest
  • Encourage breastfeeding and help in breastfeeding
  • Encourage regular walk
  • Watch for signs and symptoms of infection

Also Read –

Placenta Previa: Its Types and Management

The Pregnancy Period Third Trimester

Dengue fever Symptom Treatment and Prevention

What are the Placenta Types and Functions

Stages of Labor | Normal labor signs

Second Trimester in the Pregnancy Period

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