Hypothalamus function location hormones and disorders


Hypothalamus is the main link between your endocrine system and your nervous system. Your hypothalamus keeps your body balanced in a steady state called homeostasis. It is a specialized center in the brain that acts as a master coordinator of hormonal action. The hypothalamus releases certain releasing or inhibiting hormones in response to the CNS.

Hypothalamus location

The hypothalamus is a small structure in the human brain that is roughly the size of an almond. It is located in the center of the brain. Just above the brain stem, and pituitary gland. below the thalamus. it is a part of the limbic system.

Function of hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is composed of three main regions classified into anterior, middle, and posterior regions. The hypothalamus contains many small nuclei. Major nuclei include the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

The anterior region is also known as the supraoptic region. It regulates body temperature and circadian rhythm(Sleep Awake Cycle). The nuclei found in it are involved in the secretion of hormones.

The middle region is also called the tuberal region. It mainly consists of the ventromedial and arcuate nuclei. The ventromedial nuclei control appetite, while the arcuate nuclei secrete growth hormone responsible for the body’s growth and development.

The posterior region is also known as the mammillary region. Major nuclei include the posterior hypothalamic nucleus and the mammalian nucleus. The hypothalamic nucleus causes inhibition of shivering and sweating and thus regulates body temperature. In contrast, the mammalian nucleus is known to be involved in memory function.

Hypothalamus hormones

Hypothalamus produce at least seven releasing or inhibiting hormone.

GRH (Growth hormone-releasing hormone)

It has 44 AA (amino acids) which stimulate the release of GH or somatotropin which promotes growth.

GRIH (Growth hormone releasing inhibiting hormone)

It is also known as somatostatin it contains 14 AA it inhibits the release of GH.

TRH (Thyrotropin-releasing hormone)

It is a tripeptide consisting of glutamate Histidine and proline amino acids. It stimulates the anterior pituitary to release TSH

CRH (Corticotropin-releasing hormone)

Contents 41 AA. stimulate the anterior pituitary to release ACTH which acts on the adrenal cortex.

PRH (Protection releasing hormone)

It stimulates the anterior pituitary to release prolactin hormone.

PIH (Prolactine inhibiting hormone) or dopamine.

It is a small peptide that inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary.

GnRH (Gonadotropin- releasing hormone)

It stimulates the anterior pituitary to release Gonadotropins (FSH & LH).

Disorders of hypothalamus

Each hormone must be secreted at a precise level. Too much or too little secretion can lead to hypothalamic disorders. Hypothalamic disorders can be caused by the following problems:

  • Head injury traumatic or ischemic brain injury (Hypoxic injury).
  • Brain Infection and septic shock
  • Genetic disorder
  • Tumors in the Hypothalamus
  • Eating disorders like bulimia or anorexia.
  • Brain surgery
  • Autoimmune disorders

Symptoms that may indicate a hypothalamic disorder include:

  • Fluctuations in body temperature.
  • Dehydration or Water retention.
  • Infertility
  • Abnormally high or low blood pressure
  • Insomnia
  • Poor bone health.
  • Change in appetite
  • Frequent urination
  • Delayed puberty

Also, Read

Human Endocrine System Organs

Endocrine MCQs Quiz -2nd For Upcoming Exams

Endocrine Quiz For Upcoming Nursing Exams

Endocrine Quiz For Upcoming Nursing Exams

Medical Abbreviation, And Acronyms

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