Digestive System, Disease

STOMATITIS- Causes, Types & Sign/Symptoms



Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mucous lining of the mouth, which may involve the cheeks, gums, tongue, lips and roof or floor of the mouth. This is literally means inflammation of the mouth. It is a type of mucositis, a condition defined as pain or inflammation of the mucous membrane.

Introduction of Stomatitis

  • Inflammation of the soft tissue lining of any of the oral cavity
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Dentures
  • Mouth Burn from hot food or drinks
  • Systemic conditions that affect whole body as allergy, infection or medications

Causes of stomatitis

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Loose fitting dental prosthetics
  • Trauma
  • Poor dental hygiene
  • Smoking
  • Hematologic malignancies (Its develop 2 to 3 times the rear of solid tumor)
  • Infection viral fungal and bacterial
  • Dehydration
  • Medications

Sign and symptoms of stomatitis

canker sores and cold sores

Canker sores

  • Can be painful
  • Its usually last 5 to 10 days
  • Tends to come back
  • Generally not associated with fever

Cold sores

  • Are usually painful
  • Usually gone in 7 to 10 days
  • Associated with cold or flu like symptoms

Types of stomatitis

  • Nutritional deficiency stomatitis  – Malnutrition or malabsorption can lead to nutritional deficiency status, for example deficiency of iron vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B9, vitamin B12 may all manifest as stomatitis. iron is necessary for the upgradation or transcriptionl elements for call replication and repair.
  • Aphthous stomatitis – It is a disorder of unknown etiology that may cause significant morbidity. This is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non contagious mouth ulcer in otherwise healthy individuals one or several discrete, shallow, painful ulcer are visible on the unattached oral mucous membrane.
  • Angular stomatitis – Inflammation of the corners of the lips is Termed angular stomatitis or angular cheilitis.
  • Denture related stomatitis – It appears as Reddened but painless mucosa beneath the danture 90% of cases are associated with candida sepsis, and it is the most common form of oral Candidiasis.
  • Allergic contact stomatitis – It is a hypersensitivity reaction that occur in susceptible atopic individuals when allergic penetrate the skin, mucosa.
    Allergic content stomatitis appears as non specific inflammation, so it may be mistaken for chronic physical irritation. There may be burning or soreness of the mouth and ulceration. chronic exposure to the allergen may result in a lichenoid lesion.
  • Migratory stomatitis –  Migratory is an atypical presentation of a condition which normally present on the tongue, Termed geographical tongue. Geographic tongue is so named because there are atrophic, erythematous areas of depapillation that migrate overtime.
  • Herpetic gingivostomatitis – This is inflammation of the mouth caused by herpes simplex virus.

Treatment of stomatitis

Symptomatic treatment given in stomatitis include

  • Antiseptic mouthwash
  • Protective pestes
  • Local anaesthetic mouthwash or spray
  • Oral analgesics
  • Topical corticosteroids

Nursing management

  • The nurse instruct the present in the importance and techniques of Preventive mouth care.
  • The nurse monitors the patient physical and psychological response to treatment.
  • Advise the patient to avoid dry, bulky and irritating foods and fluids, as well as alcohol or tobacco.
  • Encourage the patient to increase fluid intake.