Preeclampsia in Pregnancy Signs Symptoms

preeclampsia in pregnancy signs symptoms treatment and complication

In this article read about preeclampsia in pregnancy its causes, signs and symptoms, treatment, and complications. Preeclampsia is a complication in pregnancy. Which is characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria (protein in the urine), low clotting factors, and low platelets in the blood. Swelling of the feet, legs, hands, and face.
Preeclampsia usually occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy, and rarely do some cases occur before 20 weeks of pregnancy, and some after delivery.

Causes of pre-eclampsia

Experts say that preeclampsia and eclampsia occur when the placenta doesn’t function properly, poor nutrition (nutrition in pregnancy), and there are high levels of body fat.
No known cause of preeclampsia has been identified but some possible causes are mentioned below-

  • genetic factors
  • autoimmune disorder
  • Blood vessel disease/problem etc.

Risk factors for preeclampsia

The Pregnancy Period Third Trimester

There are some factors that increase the risk of preeclampsia: which are given below-

  • History of high blood pressure (over 130/90 mmHg)
  • Pregnancy with multiple fetuses
  • Age – below 20years or above 35 years
  • Primigravida
  • Obesity (Weight gain in a few Days Because of increased bodily fluids)
  • Diabetes
  • Any kind of kidney disorder

Sign symptoms of preeclampsia in pregnancy

The Pregnancy changes in Mother & Baby Body

  • Swelling in feet legs and hands.
  • Weight gain in a few days because of increased body fluid.
  • Headache.
  • Belly pain in the upper right side.
  • Shoulder pain.
  • Change in reflexes or mental status.
  • Difficulty in urination.
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Change in vision – Blurred vision, flashing lights, etc.
  • Protein in the urine.


Second Trimester in the Pregnancy Period

  • If you have increased BP and at list one sign which are given below.
  • Increse protien in urine.
  • Low platelet counts in urine.
  • Increase kidney-related chemicals in the blood.
  • Increase liver-related chemicals in the blood.
  • fluid in the lungs.
  • Headache that is not cured with drugs.

Treatment of Preeclampsia in pregnancy

Surgical instrument pictures, name, and their uses

Delivery is the most effective treatment of preeclampsia. and another possible treatment of preeclampsia is –

  1. Drugs to decrease BP – If BP is higher than 140/90 mm/Hg then doctors prescribe antihypertensive drugs like Labetalol, Amlodipine.
  2. Corticosteroids – If a patient has severe preeclampsia then corticosteroids can improve liver and platelet function to help problem pregnancy and corticosteroids also help presents baby’s lungs become mature.
  3. Anticonvulsant medicine – If the patient has severe preeclampsia then the doctor prescribed anticonvulsants to prevent seizure, such as Magnesium Sulphate.

After delivery- after delivery, most of the patients will have normal BP 48 hours after delivery. but in some patients, it becomes normal in a few months, and in some cases, BP can increase after a few days of delivery close monitoring in preeclampsia present is necessary even after delivery

Complications of Preeclampsia

Instruments used in gynaecology and obstetrics

Eclampsia – If severe preeclampsia was not controlled then it develops eclampsia it is the most common complication of preeclampsia.

Fetal growth retardation – In preeclampsia, Placenta does not get enough blood. because preeclampsia affects the artery which carries blood to the Placenta so baby main receives insufficient blood and oxygen and also receive less nutrient this can lead to slow growth preterm birth and low birth weight.

Preterm birth – In severe preeclampsia, patients may need to be delivered early. because severe preeclampsia is a life-threatening condition. so to save patient lives and the baby’s life doctor induces pregnancy to deliver early.

Placental abruption – Preeclampsia increased the risk of placental abruption in which the placenta separates from the inner wall of the uterus before delivery. this condition can cause heavy bleeding.

HELLP Syndrome

H – Hemolysis.
EL – Elevated Liver enzymes.
LP – Low Platelet counts.

Other organ damage – Preeclampsia leads to kidney, liver, lungs, cardiovascular disease, and can cause stroke or brain injury.

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